The oxygen in the cloud then came into contact with the dust grain. It solidified and adhered to the surface.
This caused the lighter hydrogen molecules in the cloud to move around on the frozen dust grains until they encountered oxygen.
Water ice was formed through this interaction. But this is only the first step which is called cold phase.
Gravity then began to work its magic on the ice and the material began to solidify in the center. As more mass fell into the center of the cloud, a protostar was born.
Gravity turned into heat, and the gas and dust in the cloud reached 100 Kelvin (−280 Fahrenheit).
The ice water has now turned to steam.
This caused the process of sublimation to convert the ice into water vapor. This was the second stage: the protostar stage.
There was a lot of water in this state but it was all vapor. Then came step three.
In this phase, we saw the beginning of a protoplanetary disk, which carried within itself everything that would eventually become the planets of the Solar System.
At this stage, the water ice that formed in stage one and gas in stage two turns back into ice in the coldest reaches of the protoplanetary disk. The dust particles are once again covered in an icy blanket.